»Die ärmsten Länder drohen den Anschluss zu verlieren« | Blätter für deutsche und internationale Politik

LoginWarenkorb

»Die ärmsten Länder drohen den Anschluss zu verlieren«

Bericht von UN-Generalsekretär Ban Ki-Moon zu den Millenniumsentwicklungszielen, 7.7.2011

Lives have been saved or changed for the better

More than 10 years have passed since world leaders
established goals and targets to free humanity from extreme
poverty, hunger, illiteracy and disease. The Millennium
Declaration and the MDG framework for accountability
derived from it have inspired development efforts and helped
set global and national priorities and focus subsequent
actions. While more work lies ahead, the world has cause
to celebrate, in part due to the continued economic growth
of some developing countries and targeted interventions in
critical areas. Increased funding from many sources has
translated into the expansion of programmes to deliver
services and resources to those most in need. Here are some
of the highlights:

• Poverty continues to decline in many countries
and regions
Despite significant setbacks after the 2008-2009 economic
downturn, exacerbated by the food and energy crisis, the
world is still on track to reach the poverty-reduction target.
By 2015, it is now expected that the global poverty rate will
fall below 15 per cent, well under the 23 per cent target. This
global trend, however, mainly reflects rapid growth in Eastern
Asia, especially China.

• Some of the poorest countries have made the greatest
strides in education
Burundi, Madagascar, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and
Principe, Togo and the United Republic of Tanzania have
achieved or are nearing the goal of universal primary
education. Considerable progress has also been made
in Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mali,
Mozambique and Niger, where net enrolment ratios in primary
school increased by more than 25 percentage points from
1999 to 2009. With an 18 percentage point gain between
1999 and 2009, sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the
best record of improvement.

• Targeted interventions have succeeded in reducing
child mortality The number of deaths of children under the age
of five declined from 12.4 million in 1990 to 8.1 million in 2009.
This means that nearly 12,000 fewer children are dying each
day. Between 2000 and 2008, the combination of improved
immunization coverage and the opportunity for second-dose
immunizations led to a 78 per cent drop in measles deaths
worldwide. These averted deaths represent one quarter of the
decline in mortality from all causes among children under
five.

• Increased funding and control efforts have cut deaths
from malaria
Through the hard work of governments, international
partners, community health workers and civil society, deaths
from malaria have been reduced by 20 per cent worldwide—
from nearly 985,000 in 2000 to 781,000 in 2009. This
was accomplished through critical interventions, including
the distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets, which,
in sub-Saharan Africa alone, are sufficient to cover 76 per
cent of the population at risk. The largest absolute drops
in malaria deaths were in Africa, where 11 countries have
reduced malaria cases and deaths by over 50 per cent.

• Investments in preventing and treating HIV
are yielding results
New HIV infections are declining steadily, led by sub-Saharan
Africa. In 2009, an estimated 2.6 million people were newly
infected with HIV—a drop of 21 per cent since 1997, when
new infections peaked. Thanks to increased funding and
the expansion of major programmes, the number of people
receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV or AIDS increased 13-
fold from 2004 to 2009. By end-2009, 5.25 million people
were receiving such treatment in low- and middle-income
countries—an increase of over 1.2 million people since
December 2008. As a result, the number of AIDS-related
deaths declined by 19 per cent over the same period.

• Effective strategies against tuberculosis are saving
millions of lives Between 1995 and 2009, a total of 41 million
tuberculosis patients were successfully treated and up to 6 million
lives were saved, due to effective international protocols for the
treatment of tuberculosis. Worldwide, deaths attributed to the
disease have fallen by more than one third since 1990.

• Every region has made progress in improving access
to clean drinking water
An estimated 1.1 billion people in urban areas and 723
million people in rural areas gained access to an improved
drinking water source over the period 1990-2008. Eastern
Asia registered the largest gains in drinking water coverage—
from 69 per cent in 1990 to 86 per cent in 2008. Sub-
Saharan Africa nearly doubled the number of people using an
improved drinking water source—from 252 million in 1990 to
492 million in 2008.

Despite real progress, we are failing to reach
the most vulnerable

Alhough many countries have demonstrated that progress
is possible, efforts need to be intensified. They must also
target the hardest to reach: the poorest of the poor and
those disadvantaged because of their sex, age, ethnicity or
disability. Disparities in progress between urban and rural
areas remain daunting.

• The poorest children have made the slowest progress
in terms of improved nutrition
In 2009, nearly a quarter of children in the developing
world were underweight, with the poorest children most affected.
In Southern Asia, a shortage of quality food and
poor feeding practices, combined with inadequate sanitation,
has contributed to making underweight prevalence among
children the highest in the world. In that region, between
1995 and 2009, no meaningful improvement was seen
among children in the poorest households, while underweight
prevalence among children from the richest 20 per cent of
households decreased by almost one third. Children living
in rural areas of developing regions are twice as likely to be
underweight as are their urban counterparts.

• Opportunities for full and productive employment remain
particularly slim for women
Wide gaps remain in women’s access to paid work in at
least half of all regions. Following significant job losses in
2008-2009, the growth in employment during the economic
recovery in 2010, especially in the developing world,
was lower for women than for men. Women employed in
manufacturing industries were especially hard hit.
• Being poor, female or living in a conflict zone increases
the probability that a child will be out of school
The net enrolment ratio of children in primary school has only
gone up by 7 percentage points since 1999, reaching 89 per
cent in 2009. More recently, progress has actually slowed,
dimming prospects for reaching the MDG target of universal
primary education by 2015. Children from the poorest
households, those living in rural areas and girls are the most
likely to be out of school. Worldwide, among children of
primary school age not enrolled in school, 42 per cent—
28 million—live in poor countries affected by conflict.

• Advances in sanitation often bypass the poor and those
living in rural areas
Over 2.6 billion people still lack access to flush toilets or
other forms of improved sanitation. And where progress
has occurred, it has largely bypassed the poor. An analysis
of trends over the period 1995-2008 for three countries
in Southern Asia shows that improvements in sanitation
disproportionately benefited the better off, while sanitation
coverage for the poorest 40 per cent of households hardly
increased. Although gaps in sanitation coverage between
urban and rural areas are narrowing, rural populations remain
at a distinct disadvantage in a number of regions.

• Improving the lives of a growing number of urban poor
remains a monumental challenge
Progress in ameliorating slum conditions has not been
sufficient to offset the growth of informal settlements
throughout the developing world. In developing regions, the
number of urban residents living in slum conditions is now
estimated at 828 million, compared to 657 million in 1990
and 767 million in 2000. Redoubled efforts will be needed to
improve the lives of the urban poor in cities and metropolises
across the developing world.

• Progress has been uneven in improving access to safe
drinking water
In all regions, coverage in rural areas lags behind that of
cities and towns. In sub-Saharan Africa, an urban dweller
is 1.8 times more likely to use an improved drinking water
source than a person living in a rural area.

Sie können den gesamten Bericht hier herunterladen.

 

top