Report der Europäischen Umweltagentur, 16.10.2019 (engl. Originalfassung)
Air pollution continues to have significant impacts on the health of the European population, particularly in urban areas. Europe's most serious pollutants, in terms of harm to human health, are PM, NO2 and ground-level O3. Some population groups are more affected by air pollution than others, because they are more exposed or vulnerable to environmental hazards. Lower socio-economic groups tend to be more exposed to air pollution, while older people, children and those with pre-existing health conditions are more vulnerable. Air pollution also has considerable economic impacts, cutting lives short, increasing medical costs and reducing productivity through working days lost across the economy. Estimates of the health impacts attributable to exposure to air pollution indicate that PM2.5concentrations in 2016 (1) were responsible for about 412 000 premature deaths originating from long-term exposure in Europe (over 41 countries; see Table 10.1), of which around 374 000 were in the EU-28. The estimated impacts of exposure to NO2and O3 concentrations on the population in these 41 European countries in 2016 were around 71 000 and 15 100 premature deaths per year, respectively, and in the EU‑28 around 68 000 and 14 000 premature deaths per year, respectively.