Bericht von amnesty international, 21.9.2020 (engl. Originalfassung)
This report gives evidence of the gaps in the current European Union (EU) export regulation framework for digital surveillance technologies and provides the EU institutions and its member states with actionable recommendations to improve the protections of human rights in the upcoming Recast Dual Use Regulation. Amnesty International investigated the exports of digital surveillance technologies from Europe to China, a country that (mis)uses its criminal law system to restrict human rights.China is also rapidly installing surveillance networks that are used for indiscriminate mass surveillance and use facial and ethnicity recognition software to discriminate against the Uyghur population.
Amnesty International’s investigation revealed that three EU-based companies –Morpho (now Idemia)from France, Axis Communications from Sweden, and Noldus Information Technology from the Netherlands-exported digital surveillance tools to China. These technologies included facial and emotion recognition software, and are now used by Chinese public security bureaus, criminal law enforcement agencies, and/or government-related research institutes, including in the region of Xinjiang. None of the companies fulfilled their human rights due diligence responsibilities for these transactions, as prescribed by international human rights law. The exports pose significant risks to human rights. Amongst other risks, some of the technologies can eliminate the possibility for individuals to remain anonymous in public spaces, whichinterferes with the rights to privacy, non-discrimination, freedom of opinion and expression, and may impact the rights to assembly and association.Yet, the export of most digital surveillance technologies, including facial recognition,remainsunregulated by the EU.
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