Studie der Initiative #KeepItOn, 24.2.2019 (engl. Originalfassung)
From Bolivia to Malawi, India, Sudan, and beyond, 2019 was a difficult year, online and off. The #KeepItOn coalition has documented an increase in internet shutdowns in 2019, as well as a trend toward sustained and prolonged shutdowns, and targeted internet shutdowns.
In 2019 we documented at least 213 incidents of internet shutdowns around the world. Just like in 2018, India tops the list globally of countries that have shut down the internet, with a staggering 121 incidents of shutdowns, including in new states that shut down the internet in an evident attempt to stifle dissenting voices.Following India, Venezuela was a global “leader” for shutdowns, blocking access to social media platforms at least 12 times in 2019. After Venezuela, Yemen, Iraq, Algeria, and Ethiopia were the countries with the most shutdowns.
Globally, out of the 213 network disruptions documented in 2019, at least 196 were shutdowns, 10 were throttling accompanied with shutdowns, four were just throttling, and three were unknown. Out of the 196 shutdowns, 63 targeted mobile data and 123 targeted both mobile and fixed-line connections. At least 38 incidents affected only service-based platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp, and other social media services. It is common for countries first to block access to social media, then to impose a complete blackout of internet services.
In 2019 people around the world used social media platforms to organize grassroots movements, from Sudan to Venezuela and beyond. These same platforms are of course also leveraged to spread false information, target activists and journalists, and fan hate speech. Yet as two-way communications platforms, they remain an avenue for empowering users, and governments have made numerous attempts to throttle or block access to these services.
Das volständige Dokument finden Sie hier.